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Vulkan-MonitorIn einer Tiefe ab 100 km, ist es zwischen 1000 und 1300 Grad Celsius heiß. Gestein beginnt zu schmelzen und sammelt sich in großen, tropfenförmigen Magmaherden in 2 bis 50 km Tiefe. Wenn der Druck zu groß wird, steigt das Magma über Spalten und Klüfte an die Oberfläche: Ein Vulkan entsteht.
Karte der augenblicklich aktiven Vulkane
Chiles-Cerro Negro (Colombia-Ecuador), INGEOMINAS, Colombia
Volcanic activity report for Chiles-Cerro Negro (Colombia-Ecuador), 22 October-28 October 2014Based on reports from Observatorio Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto (SGC-OVSP), and the Instituto Geofísico de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IGEPN), on 26 October Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) stated that seismic activity at Cerro Negro de Mayasquer and Chiles volcanoes continued at a high rate. Since 29 September 2014 about 81,000 earthquakes had been detected with 6,300 of those events occurring on 25 October. The epicenter was 2-3.5 km S of Chiles. Interferometry (INSAR) and a high resolution GPS network both showed localized deformation S of Chiles. The Alert Level remained at Orange (level 3 of 4). A news article from 23 October noted that 3,500 families had been evacuated from the Chiles, Panam, and Mayasquer communities.
Copahue (Chile-Argentina), Southern Andes Volcano Observatory
Volcanic activity report for Copahue (Chile-Argentina), 22 October-28 October 2014On 24 October SERNAGEOMIN reported a continuing downward trend of seismicity at Copahue and that emissions had become more diffuse with only minute amounts of tephra in some plumes. A small mud lake had also formed in the crater. SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level to Yellow and recommended no entry into a restricted area within 3 km of the crater. ONEMI maintained Level Yellow for Alto Biobío (40 km W) in the Biobío region (since 3 June 2013).
Kilauea (United States), Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
Volcanic activity report for Kilauea (United States), 22 October-28 October 2014During 22-28 October HVO reported that Kilaueas 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active. On 22 October a narrow lava flow (less than 50 m wide) that had overtaken the flow front during the previous few days moved into a small gully; the advancement rate was variable and sometimes as high as 300 m/day. Another breakout upslope continued to advance at a slower rate. On 24 October HVO scientists aboard an overflight measured the cross sectional area of the lava tube feeding the flow; the measurement suggested that the volume of lava being supplied to the flow from the Pu'u 'O'o vent had slightly increased. At approximately 0350 on 25 October lava crossed Apaa Street and continued to advance towards Pahoa town. Throughout the morning the flow moved down the Pahoa cemetery driveway and then turned SE into adjoining pasture. At 0900 on 26 October the flow was an estimated 140 m wide. The next day it had narrowed to 100 m wide and was about 570 m from Pahoa Village Road. At about 0200 on 28 October the flow had reached the first occupied residential property. The leading edge of the flow was less than 50 m wide but increased to 150 m upslope. At 1730 the lava flow was 310 m in a straight-line distance from Pahoa Village Road and about 900 meters in a straight-line distance from Highway 130. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning. According to news articles, Pahoa town, residence to 800-900 people, consists of small shops and homes. A school and a few roads were closed. Crews were building temporary access roads and trying to build berms to divert lava away from the highly traveled Highway 130. The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.
Mayon (Philippines), Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology
Volcanic activity report for Mayon (Philippines), 22 October-28 October 2014PHIVOLCS reported that during 22-28 October white plumes rose from Mayon's crater and drifted SW, WSW, WNW, and NW. A few volcanic earthquakes and rockfall signals were recorded during 23-25 and 28 October. Weak crater incandescence from the crater was noted at night on 22, 25, and 27 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale).
Popocatepetl (Mexico), CENAPRED, México
Volcanic activity report for Popocatepetl (Mexico), 22 October-28 October 2014CENAPRED reported that during 22-28 October seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions of water vapor, gas, and small amounts of ash. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night. A small explosion at 0317 on 25 October ejected tephra 100 m onto the S flank. A steam-and-gas plume containing a small amount of ash rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted SW. Ashfall was reported in Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW). An explosion at 0111 on 26 October ejected tephra 200 m onto the N flank. A steam-and-gas plume with diffuse ash rose 1.1 km and drifted NW. On 28 October an ash plume drifted WSW. The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Two.
Sinabung (Indonesia), Centre of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
Volcanic activity report for Sinabung (Indonesia), 22 October-28 October 2014Based on webcam views, wind data models, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-27 October ash plumes rose from Sinabung. During 23-24 October ash plumes drifted 15-40 km N and SW. A small eruption observed on the webcam on 25 October produced a minor amount of ash that drifted SW; a later ash plume drifted almost 30 km WNW. The next day another eruption generated an ash plume that drifted E. Ash emissions on 27 October were recorded by the webcam. The VAAC noted that PVMBG reported an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and then dissipated. On 27 October BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained high; on 26 October pyroclastic flows traveled 3.5 km S and avalanches occurred multiple times. Hot ash clouds rose 2 km. The report stated that 3,284 people from 1,018 families remained in evacuation shelters.
Aira (Japan), Sakurajima Volcano Observatory
Volcanic activity report for Aira (Japan), 22 October-28 October 2014JMA reported that two explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Calderas Sakurajima volcano were detected during 20-24 October; an explosion on 24 October generated a plume that rose 3.2 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 24 October ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3-4.6 km (10,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. During 25-26 October plumes rose to altitudes of 2.4-2.7 km (8,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. On 28 October plume rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S.
Asosan (Japan), Aso Volcanological Laboratory
Volcanic activity report for Asosan (Japan), 22 October-28 October 2014JMA reported that a period of tremor from a very small eruption at Asosan was recorded late at night on 22 October through early the next morning. The video camera near the crater had ash adhered to it. During a field survey on 24 October volcanologists observed ashfall around Nakadake Crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).
Bardarbunga (Iceland), Inst of Earth Sciences, Univ of Iceland
Volcanic activity report for Bardarbunga (Iceland), 22 October-28 October 2014JMA reported that a period of tremor from a very small eruption at Asosan was recorded late at night on 22 October through early the next morning. The video camera near the crater had ash adhered to it. During a field survey on 24 October volcanologists observed ashfall around Nakadake Crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).
Dukono (Indonesia), Centre of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
Volcanic activity report for Dukono (Indonesia), 22 October-28 October 2014Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 85 km E.
Ontakesan (Japan), Japan Meteorological Agency
Volcanic activity report for Ontakesan (Japan), 22 October-28 October 2014JMA reported that cloud cover often prevented visual observations of Ontakesan during 22-28 October; white plumes were periodically observed rising 100-300 m above the crater rim and drifting E and SE. Seismicity remained low. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).
Sabancaya (Peru), Instituto Geofisico del Perú
Volcanic activity report for Sabancaya (Peru), 22 October-28 October 2014IGP reported that during 21-27 October seismic activity at Sababcaya was low, and sporadic white and blue plumes rose as high as 1.2 km. Although a pilot reported an ash plume drifting E on 23 October, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash was not detected in satellite images. The webcam showed gas-and-steam emissions, likely with diffuse ash, dissipating near the summit. On 25 October a pilot reported ash drifting E, but again satellite images did not detected ash.
Santa Maria (Guatemala), INSIVUMEH, Guatemala
Volcanic activity report for Santa Maria (Guatemala), 22 October-28 October 2014INSIVUMEH reported that during 22-23 October avalanches originated from the lava-flow front active on the S flank of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. Phreatic explosions occurred at the middle and lower parts of the lava flow. On 24 October a lahar descended the San Isidro (SW) drainage, a tributary of the Tambor River, carrying blocks 1-2 m in diameter. During 25-26 October a dense white plume rose 500 m and drifted SW. The most active part of the lava flow advanced S down the Nima I drainage. Another part had advanced 3 km E and was active in the San José finca. Block avalanches were produced from the lava-flow fronts.
Sheveluch (Russia), Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team
Volcanic activity report for Sheveluch (Russia), 22 October-28 October 2014KVERT reported that during 17-24 October lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluchs N flank was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the dome during 17, 20, and 22 October; cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Shishaldin (United States), Alaska Volcano Observatory
Volcanic activity report for Shishaldin (United States), 22 October-28 October 2014AVO reported that partly cloudy satellite images and mostly cloudy webcam views showed nothing unusual at Shishaldin during 21-24 October. Seismicity increased on 25 October, and was followed by a tremor event and elevated surface temperatures detected at the summit in satellite images. Tephra deposits at the summit were noted in clear webcam images on 26 October, indicating that the event was energetic enough to eject material onto the flank from a depth of several hundred meters within the summit crater. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Zhupanovsky (Russia), Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team
Volcanic activity report for Zhupanovsky (Russia), 22 October-28 October 2014KVERT reported that an eruption at Zhupanovsky likely continued during 17-24 October. Satellite images were obscured by clouds. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Die Daten stellt die Smithsonian Institution im wöchentlich aktualisierten USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report zur Verfügung.
In Deutschland gibt es momentan keine aktiven Vulkane. Der Vulkanismus in Deutschland in den verangengen Jahrentausenden bzw. Jahrmillionen wurde durch Hebung der Alpen verursacht. Dass dieser Prozess noch nicht abgeschlossen ist, zeigen kleinere Erdbeben vom Rheingraben bis zur Kölner Bucht. Die Vulkane, die es in Deutschland gibt spucken zwar zur Zeit keine Lava aus, aber es gibt in Deutschland an vielen Orten heiße Quellen. Diese Thermalquellen sind ein Zeichen dafür, dass Wasser im inneren der Erde erwärmt wird. Vulkanaktivitäten aus vergangenen Zeiten sieht man in Deutschland z.B. auch am Kaiserstuhl in der oberrheinischen Ebene und am Rand der Schwäbischen Alp.