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Vulkan-MonitorIn einer Tiefe ab 100 km, ist es zwischen 1000 und 1300 Grad Celsius heiß. Gestein beginnt zu schmelzen und sammelt sich in großen, tropfenförmigen Magmaherden in 2 bis 50 km Tiefe. Wenn der Druck zu groß wird, steigt das Magma über Spalten und Klüfte an die Oberfläche: Ein Vulkan entsteht.
Karte der augenblicklich aktiven Vulkane
Huaynaputina (Peru), Instituto Geofisico del Perú
Volcanic activity report for Huaynaputina (Peru), 19 February-25 February 2020IGP reported that during 11 and 20-21 February small- to moderate-sized lahars descended the El Volcán drainage, on the S flank of Huaynaputina, and traveled to within 500 m of Quinistaquillas, in the province of Sánchez Cerro, Moquegua region.
Reykjanes (Iceland), Inst of Earth Sciences, Univ of Iceland
Volcanic activity report for Reykjanes (Iceland), 19 February-25 February 2020On 25 February IMO reported that seismic activity at Reykjanes, in an area N of the town of Grindavík, had significantly decreased during the previous few days, and inflation was not detected in GPS and InSAR data. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green. Preliminary data suggested a small deflation signal beginning mid-February, though further analysis was needed for confirmation. The report warned the public not to explore lava tubes in the Eldvörp area as gas measurements showed a dangerous level of oxygen depletion; there are no pre-unrest measurements existing for comparison.
San Miguel (El Salvador), Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales
Volcanic activity report for San Miguel (El Salvador), 19 February-25 February 2020SNET reported that local observers of San Miguel reported a series of rumbling noises that occurred from 1900 on 20 February to 0750 on 21 February. The report noted an increase in amplitude of microearthquakes and minor gas emissions form the main crater. Sulfur dioxide levels had also increased. Beginning at 1055 on 22 February an ash emission that lasted 10 minutes long resulted in a small gas-and-ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim. Minor ashfall was reported in the area of Piedra Azul, 5 km SW. RSAM peaked at 510 units during the period of emissions, above the normal values of 150, as recorded by station VSM located on the upper N flank. The number of low-amplitude tremor events increased after a quiet period of about 11 hours and were associated with gas emissions; RSAM was 33-97 units and minor gas plumes were visible rising 400 m during 23-24 February.
Semisopochnoi (United States), Alaska Volcano Observatory
Volcanic activity report for Semisopochnoi (United States), 19 February-25 February 2020AVO reported that intermittent, low-level tremor was detected at Semisopochnoi during 19-25 February. Brief periods of elevated tremor were recorded during 19-20 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Aira (Japan), Sakurajima Volcano Observatory
Volcanic activity report for Aira (Japan), 19 February-25 February 2020JMA reported that during 17-25 February there were 34 explosions and 19 non-explosive eruptive events detected by the Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera?s Sakurajima volcano) seismic network. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim and material was ejected 600-1,100 m away from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible every night. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was elevated at 1,900 tons/day on 20 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Dukono (Indonesia), Centre of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
Volcanic activity report for Dukono (Indonesia), 19 February-25 February 2020Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-25 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Ebeko (Russia), Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team
Volcanic activity report for Ebeko (Russia), 19 February-25 February 2020Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 18-19 February that sent ash plumes up to 2.3 km (7,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted SE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Ibu (Indonesia), Centre of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
Volcanic activity report for Ibu (Indonesia), 19 February-25 February 2020The Darwin VAAC reported that on 18, 20, and 22 February ash plumes from Ibu rose to 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, S, and SW. PVMBG stated that at 1113 on 20 February a white-to-gray ash plume rose at least 400 m above the summit (6,800 ft a.s.l.) and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.
Kadovar (Papua New Guinea),
Volcanic activity report for Kadovar (Papua New Guinea), 19 February-25 February 2020Based on satellite data and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 23 February an ash plume from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE.
Klyuchevskoy (Russia), Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team
Volcanic activity report for Klyuchevskoy (Russia), 19 February-25 February 2020KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy was visible during 14-21 February, and a thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images those same days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Kuchinoerabujima (Japan), Japan Meteorological Agency
Volcanic activity report for Kuchinoerabujima (Japan), 19 February-25 February 2020JMA reported that very small eruptive events recorded at Kuchinoerabujima?s Shindake Crater during 20-21 February generated whitish plumes that rose 200 m above the crater rim. No changes were observed during field visits on those two days. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 400-600 tons per day during 20-23 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5).
Merapi (Indonesia), Centre of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
Volcanic activity report for Merapi (Indonesia), 19 February-25 February 2020PVMBG reported that the volume of Merapi?s summit lava dome decreased after the 13 February eruption which produced a 2-km-tall ash plume, ejected material within 1 km, and caused ashfall within a 10-km radius. The dome volume the day before the event was estimated at 407,000 cubic meters, and afterwards (19 February) was reduced to 291,000 cubic meters. Visual observations during 17-23 February were mostly hindered due to inclement weather conditions, though on 18 February a white plume was seen rising 100 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.
Nevados de Chillan (Chile), Southern Andes Volcano Observatory
Volcanic activity report for Nevados de Chillan (Chile), 19 February-25 February 2020SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 18-22 February white-and-gray plumes from Nevados de Chillán?s Nicanor Crater generally rose as high as 1.9 km above the rim and drifted mainly SE. An explosion recorded at 1924 on 19 February generated an ash plume that rose 2 km. White plumes rose 100 m during 23-25 February. The volcano Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián, and stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank.
Popocatepetl (Mexico), CENAPRED, México
Volcanic activity report for Popocatepetl (Mexico), 19 February-25 February 2020CENAPRED reported that during an overflight of Popocatépetl on 18 February volcanologists noted no significant morphological changes at the summit crater; the inner crater was 350 m in diameter and 100-150 m deep, and the crater floor was covered with tephra. Each day during 18-25 February there were 130-263 steam-and-gas emissions from the summit crater. As many as nine low- to moderate-level explosions were recorded each day, generating gas plumes with minor amounts of ash that drifted N, NW, and SW. An explosion at 1737 on 19 February produced an ash plume that rose 1.2 km above the crater rim and drifted NW, and ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale).
Reventador (Ecuador), Escuela Politecnica Nacional, Instituto Geofísico
Volcanic activity report for Reventador (Ecuador), 19 February-25 February 2020IG reported that during 18-24 January seismic data from Reventador?s network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Daily gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater rim and drifted NW, W, and SW. Incandescent blocks rolled 600-700 m down the flanks during 18-21 February. Weather sometimes prevented views of the summit area.
Semeru (Indonesia), Centre of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
Volcanic activity report for Semeru (Indonesia), 19 February-25 February 2020PVMBG reported that during 17-23 February eruptive events at Semeru generated ash plume that rose around 400 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Sheveluch (Russia), Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team
Volcanic activity report for Sheveluch (Russia), 19 February-25 February 2020KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 15-21 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Suwanosejima (Japan), Japan Meteorological Agency
Volcanic activity report for Suwanosejima (Japan), 19 February-25 February 2020JMA reported that during 14-21 February incandescence from Suwanosejima?s Ontake Crater was visible nightly. An eruption on 19 February produced a grayish-white ash plume that rose 1.6 km above the crater rim. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village, 4 km SSW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).
Taal (Philippines), Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology
Volcanic activity report for Taal (Philippines), 19 February-25 February 2020PHIVOLCS reported that during 19-24 February steam plumes rose 50-100 m above the vent and drifted SW. Sulfur dioxide emissions were below detectable limits during 19-20 February. According to the Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) there were a total of 4,113 people in 15 evacuation centers, and an additional 191,451 people were staying at other locations as of 25 February. PHIVOLCS recommended no entry onto Volcano Island, the area defined as the Permanent Danger Zone.
White Island (New Zealand), New Zealand GeoNet Project
Volcanic activity report for White Island (New Zealand), 19 February-25 February 2020On 19 February GeoNet reported that White island remained at an elevated state of unrest, confirmed by two overflights of the island for visual observations and data collection. Results from a gas data showed a steady decline on both carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide flux, though levels were still slightly elevated. Thermal infrared data indicated that the fumarolic gases and the five lobes of lava in the main vent remained very hot at 660 degrees Celsius. A small pond of water had formed in the vent area and small-scale jetting was occurring, similar to September-December 2019 activity. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.
Die Daten stellt die Smithsonian Institution im wöchentlich aktualisierten USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report zur Verfügung.
In Deutschland gibt es momentan keine aktiven Vulkane. Der Vulkanismus in Deutschland in den verangengen Jahrentausenden bzw. Jahrmillionen wurde durch Hebung der Alpen verursacht. Dass dieser Prozess noch nicht abgeschlossen ist, zeigen kleinere Erdbeben vom Rheingraben bis zur Kölner Bucht. Die Vulkane, die es in Deutschland gibt spucken zwar zur Zeit keine Lava aus, aber es gibt in Deutschland an vielen Orten heiße Quellen. Diese Thermalquellen sind ein Zeichen dafür, dass Wasser im inneren der Erde erwärmt wird. Vulkanaktivitäten aus vergangenen Zeiten sieht man in Deutschland z.B. auch am Kaiserstuhl in der oberrheinischen Ebene und am Rand der Schwäbischen Alp.