- Survival Tipps
- Essen & Trinken
Vulkan-MonitorIn einer Tiefe ab 100 km, ist es zwischen 1000 und 1300 Grad Celsius heiß. Gestein beginnt zu schmelzen und sammelt sich in großen, tropfenförmigen Magmaherden in 2 bis 50 km Tiefe. Wenn der Druck zu groß wird, steigt das Magma über Spalten und Klüfte an die Oberfläche: Ein Vulkan entsteht.
Karte der augenblicklich aktiven Vulkane
Fernandina (Ecuador), Escuela Politecnica Nacional, Instituto Geofísico
Volcanic activity report for Fernandina (Ecuador), 13 June-19 June 2018IG reported that a seismic swarm at Fernandina began at 0837 on 16 June. Nine earthquakes stronger than M 2.5 were detected with the largest event, a M 4.1, located NE of the island at a depth of 4 km. An eruption that began between 1100 and 1115 was confirmed by guides on a passing boat passing, and by thermal anomalies identified in satellite images. The eruption occurred from a radial fissure on the NNE flank, producing gas plumes with low ash content that rose 2-3 km and drifted more than 250 km WNW. Lava flows reached the sea within a few hours. After two days of intense eruptive activity, tremor levels decreased significantly, thermal anomalies decreased (though continued to remain intense), and a significant drop in sulfur dioxide emissions was recorded.
Fuego (Guatemala), INSIVUMEH, Guatemala
Volcanic activity report for Fuego (Guatemala), 13 June-19 June 2018During 13-19 June INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that strong lahars at Fuego were often hot, steaming, and had a sulfur odor, and were generated from heavy rains and the recent accumulation of pyroclastic-flow deposits from the 3 June events. Lahars descended the Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), Mineral, Santa Teresa (W), El Gobernador, and Taniluyá (SW) drainages. They were 20-45 m wide, as deep as 3 m, and often carried blocks up to 3 m in diameter, tree trunks, and branches. On 14 June lahars disrupted communication in the communities of Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Yucales, and Sangré de Cristo (8 km WSW), all of Yepocapa (8 km N), and Chimaltenango (21 km NNE), requiring assistance from the Army. Water levels in the Pantaleón River began to rapidly rise in the afternoon of 17 June. During 16-19 June as many as seven explosions per hour produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater and drifted as far as 15 km W, SW, and S. Some explosions were heard in areas within a 10-km radius. Avalanches of material descended the Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, and Cenizas drainages during 17-18 June, producing ash plumes, and ashfall in Panimache, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, and finca Palo Verde. According to CONRED, as of 19 June, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows remained at 110, and 197 more were missing. In addition, 12,823 people had been evacuated.
Great Sitkin (United States), Alaska Volcano Observatory
Volcanic activity report for Great Sitkin (United States), 13 June-19 June 2018AVO reported that satellite images captured after the short-lived steam explosion at Great Sitkin on 10 June indicated minor changes in the summit crater, characterized by possible new fumaroles in the N part of the main crater and slightly more vigorous steaming at pre-existing fumaroles. Seismicity declined to background levels during 15-16 June.
Ibu (Indonesia), Centre of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
Volcanic activity report for Ibu (Indonesia), 13 June-19 June 2018PVMBG reported that during 14-19 June white-to-gray plumes rose 200-600 m above Ibu?s crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.
Agung (Indonesia), Centre of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
Volcanic activity report for Agung (Indonesia), 13 June-19 June 2018PVMBG reported that at 1105 on 13 June an event at Agung produced a dense ash plume that rose around 2 km above the crater rim and drifted SW and W. Based on analysis of the seismic data, the event lasted two minutes and 12 seconds. Another event was detected at 2115 on 15 June, though foggy conditions prevented estimations of the ash plume height; ash fell in areas W, including in Puregai (7 km W). The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the 4-km-radius exclusion zone was unchanged.
Aira (Japan), Sakurajima Volcano Observatory
Volcanic activity report for Aira (Japan), 13 June-19 June 2018JMA reported that there were eight events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera?s Sakurajima volcano) during 11-15 June, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim. An explosive event at 0719 on 16 June 2018 generated an ash plume that rose 4.7 km (the first time that a plume rose over 4 km since 2 May 2017) and ejecting tephra as far as 1.1 km. A pyroclastic flow traveled down the SW flank. The last pyroclastic flow originated at the Showa Crater on 1 April 2018. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Cleveland (United States), Alaska Volcano Observatory
Volcanic activity report for Cleveland (United States), 13 June-19 June 2018AVO reported that low-level unrest at Cleveland continued during 13-19 June. Elevated surface temperatures were evident in satellite data on days when the area was cloud-free. Nothing unusual was observed in seismic or pressure sensor data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory.
Dukono (Indonesia), Centre of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
Volcanic activity report for Dukono (Indonesia), 13 June-19 June 2018Based on PVMBG observations and satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-17 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.
Karymsky (Russia), Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team
Volcanic activity report for Karymsky (Russia), 13 June-19 June 2018KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was last identified in satellite images on 20 May. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) on 15 June.
Kilauea (United States), Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
Volcanic activity report for Kilauea (United States), 13 June-19 June 2018HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea?s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and at Overlook Crater within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 13-19 June. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline where the fast-moving flow entered the ocean in the area of the former Kapoho Bay. Minor lava activity at Fissures 16/18 was occasionally noted, and spattering was visible at Fissure 6 on 16 June. Hawai?i County Civil Defense reported that by 17 June a total of 533 homes had been destroyed due to lava flows. Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Steam plumes rose from areas in the crater as well as from circumferential cracks adjacent to the crater. Summit explosions occurred daily, producing ash plumes that rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. On 18 June residents reported feeling a large earthquake at 0613 and hearing roaring. The event was followed by an ash plume rising to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. Fountaining at Fissure 8 was stable; lava fountains rose as high 60 m from a 52-m-high spatter cone. Pele's hair and other volcanic glass from the fountaining fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the fast-moving lava flow that traveled NE, and then SE around Kapoho Crater, and into the ocean. Occasional overflows sent small flows down the sides of the channel. Lava entering the ocean built a lava delta that by 16 June was just over 130 hectares in area. A plume of laze rose from the entry points. An area of thermal upwelling in the ocean out from the visible lava-delta front was visible, suggesting lava flowing on the ocean floor.
Klyuchevskoy (Russia), Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team
Volcanic activity report for Klyuchevskoy (Russia), 13 June-19 June 2018KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images during 13-14 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Langila (Papua New Guinea),
Volcanic activity report for Langila (Papua New Guinea), 13 June-19 June 2018Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 17 June an ash plume from Langila rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.
Pacaya (Guatemala), INSIVUMEH, Guatemala
Volcanic activity report for Pacaya (Guatemala), 13 June-19 June 2018INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that during 13 and 16-18 June Strombolian explosions at Pacaya?s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 50 m above the crater rim. An ash plume rose 3.5 km above the summit and drifted 10 km N and NE.
Sabancaya (Peru), Instituto Geofisico del Perú
Volcanic activity report for Sabancaya (Peru), 13 June-19 June 2018Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosions at Sabancaya averaged 19 per day during 11-17 June. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km S and SE. The MIROVA system detected two thermal anomalies, and on 14 June the sulfur dioxide gas flux was high at 4,300 tons/day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.
Santa Maria (Guatemala), INSIVUMEH, Guatemala
Volcanic activity report for Santa Maria (Guatemala), 13 June-19 June 2018INSIVUMEH reported that on 13 June lahars descended Nimá I drainage on the S flank of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. The lahars were 15-18 m wide and 1-2 m deep, and carried blocks 1.5 m in diameter and tree branches. CONRED noted that a Yellow Alert Level was declared for Quetzaltenango (18 km WNW) on 16 June due to continuing rains and an increased threat of lahars. Weak explosions during 16-18 June generated diffuse ash plumes that rose 700 m above the complex and drifted SW and W.
Sheveluch (Russia), Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team
Volcanic activity report for Sheveluch (Russia), 13 June-19 June 2018KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 13-14 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sinabung (Indonesia), Centre of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
Volcanic activity report for Sinabung (Indonesia), 13 June-19 June 2018PVMBG reported that at 0700 on 15 June an event at Sinabung produced an ash plume that rose at least 500 m above the crater rim and drifted ESE. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector.
Volcanic activity report for Yasur (Vanuatu), 13 June-19 June 2018Based on webcam images, satellite data, and local visual observations the Wellington VAAC reported that during 14-15 and 17-18 June intermittent, low-level ash plumes from Yasur rose to altitudes of 0.9-1.2 km (3,000-4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, and N.
Die Daten stellt die Smithsonian Institution im wöchentlich aktualisierten USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report zur Verfügung.
In Deutschland gibt es momentan keine aktiven Vulkane. Der Vulkanismus in Deutschland in den verangengen Jahrentausenden bzw. Jahrmillionen wurde durch Hebung der Alpen verursacht. Dass dieser Prozess noch nicht abgeschlossen ist, zeigen kleinere Erdbeben vom Rheingraben bis zur Kölner Bucht. Die Vulkane, die es in Deutschland gibt spucken zwar zur Zeit keine Lava aus, aber es gibt in Deutschland an vielen Orten heiße Quellen. Diese Thermalquellen sind ein Zeichen dafür, dass Wasser im inneren der Erde erwärmt wird. Vulkanaktivitäten aus vergangenen Zeiten sieht man in Deutschland z.B. auch am Kaiserstuhl in der oberrheinischen Ebene und am Rand der Schwäbischen Alp.