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Vulkan-MonitorIn einer Tiefe ab 100 km, ist es zwischen 1000 und 1300 Grad Celsius heiß. Gestein beginnt zu schmelzen und sammelt sich in großen, tropfenförmigen Magmaherden in 2 bis 50 km Tiefe. Wenn der Druck zu groß wird, steigt das Magma über Spalten und Klüfte an die Oberfläche: Ein Vulkan entsteht.
Karte der augenblicklich aktiven Vulkane
Cuicocha (Ecuador), Escuela Politecnica Nacional, Instituto Geofísico
Volcanic activity report for Cuicocha (Ecuador), 10 October-16 October 2018IG reported that, after an earthquake swarm consisting of 62 volcano-tectonic events during 2-3 October, seismicity at Cuicocha returned to background levels on 4 October. Carbon dioxide levels were normal, and deformation data did not show any anomalies.
Gamalama (Indonesia), Centre of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
Volcanic activity report for Gamalama (Indonesia), 10 October-16 October 2018On 10 October PVMBG reported only gas emissions (mostly water vapor) from Gamalama; the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius.
Piton de la Fournaise (France), IPGP Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise
Volcanic activity report for Piton de la Fournaise (France), 10 October-16 October 2018OVPF reported that the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise continued during 10-16 October, though webcam images indicated that the lava-flow front had not significantly progressed since 8 October. The lava lake in the cone was at a low level. Strong gas emissions rose from the main vent as well as from the lava tube, just downstream from the vent.
Sangeang Api (Indonesia), Centre of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
Volcanic activity report for Sangeang Api (Indonesia), 10 October-16 October 2018Based on a VONA from PVMBG an ash emission from Sangeang Api was generated at 1338 on 15 October; it rose 250 m above the summit and drifted SW, W, and NW. The VONA noted that the ash emission possibly rose higher than what a ground observer had estimated. Seismic data was dominated by signals indicating emissions as well as local tectonic earthquakes. The Aviation Color Code was changed from Yellow to Orange.
Sarychev Peak (Russia), Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team
Volcanic activity report for Sarychev Peak (Russia), 10 October-16 October 2018Based on Tokyo VAAC data and satellite images, KVERT reported that at 1330 on 10 October an ash plume from Sarychev Peak rose to 1.7-2 km (5,600-6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 95 km E. SVERT reported that on 15 October an ash plume rose 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65-70 km E. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Semisopochnoi (United States), Alaska Volcano Observatory
Volcanic activity report for Semisopochnoi (United States), 10 October-16 October 2018On 11 October AVO reported that satellite data of Semisopochnoi indicated partial erosion of a tephra cone in the crater of Cerberus?s N cone. A crater lake about 90 m in diameter filled the vent. The data also suggested that the vent had not erupted since 1 October. Seismicity remained elevated and above background levels. The next day AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory, noting the recent satellite data results and lack of tremor recorded during the previous week.
Soputan (Indonesia), Centre of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
Volcanic activity report for Soputan (Indonesia), 10 October-16 October 2018On 16 October PVMBG issued a VONA noting only white emissions at Soputan; the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow.
Ulawun (Papua New Guinea),
Volcanic activity report for Ulawun (Papua New Guinea), 10 October-16 October 2018RVO reported that during 1-12 October white and sometimes light gray emissions rose from Ulawun?s summit crater. Seismicity was low.
Aira (Japan), Sakurajima Volcano Observatory
Volcanic activity report for Aira (Japan), 10 October-16 October 2018JMA reported occasional, very small events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera?s Sakurajima volcano) during 9-15 October. Sulfur dioxide emissions decreased from 3,400 tons/day on 4 October to 600 tons/day on 10 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Dukono (Indonesia), Centre of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
Volcanic activity report for Dukono (Indonesia), 10 October-16 October 2018Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-12 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SW.
Ebeko (Russia), Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team
Volcanic activity report for Ebeko (Russia), 10 October-16 October 2018Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 5-12 October that sent ash plumes to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed ash plumes drifting about 125 km SE on 5 and 8 October, and a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 8 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Fuego (Guatemala), INSIVUMEH, Guatemala
Volcanic activity report for Fuego (Guatemala), 10 October-16 October 2018INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that on 12 October a new phase of activity began at Fuego, characterized by lava fountains rising as high as 400 m above the crater rim, avalanches of incandescent material down the W and SSW flanks, increased rumbling, and a lava flow traveling 1 km down the Santa Teresa (W) drainage. Very frequent explosions generated ash plumes that rose 850 m and drifted 12 km S and SE. On 13 October a steaming lahar descended the Ceniza (SSW) drainage, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter, and branches and tree trunks. During 13-16 October explosions (8-18 per hour) produced ash plumes that rose almost 1 km and drifted 8-12 km S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, and Panimaché I and II (8 km SW). Incandescent material was ejected 150-200 m high, causing avalanches of material within the crater, though some of the avalanches traveled long distances, reaching vegetated areas. The lava flow on the W flank was still visible but by 14 October no longer active.
Kadovar (Papua New Guinea),
Volcanic activity report for Kadovar (Papua New Guinea), 10 October-16 October 2018Based on satellite data and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-12 October ash plumes from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W.
Manam (Papua New Guinea),
Volcanic activity report for Manam (Papua New Guinea), 10 October-16 October 2018RVO reported that during 2-12 October brown, gray-brown, and dark gray ash emissions rose as high as 1 km above Manam?s Southern Crater rim and drifted NW. Main Crater produced occasional white emissions, though on 2 October plumes were gray-brown and contained ash. Bluish vapor was noted during 3-4 October.
Merapi (Indonesia), Centre of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
Volcanic activity report for Merapi (Indonesia), 10 October-16 October 2018PVMBG reported that during 5-11 October the lava dome in Merapi?s summit crater grew slowly at a rate of 3,100 cubic meters per day, though faster than the previous week. By 11 October the volume of the dome was an estimated 160,000 cubic meters. White emissions of variable density rose a maximum of 75 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.
Pacaya (Guatemala), INSIVUMEH, Guatemala
Volcanic activity report for Pacaya (Guatemala), 10 October-16 October 2018INSIVUMEH reported that during 11-15 October Strombolian explosions at Pacaya?s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 25 m above the crater rim, and gas plumes rose 200-700 m. A lava flow that first emerged on 11 October traveled NW towards Cerro Chino, and by 15 October was 250 m long.
Sabancaya (Peru), Instituto Geofisico del Perú
Volcanic activity report for Sabancaya (Peru), 10 October-16 October 2018Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosions at Sabancaya averaged 17 per day during 8-14 October. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km NE, E, SE, and SW. The MIROVA system detected six thermal anomalies, and on 14 October the sulfur dioxide gas flux was high at 3,132 tons per day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.
Sheveluch (Russia), Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team
Volcanic activity report for Sheveluch (Russia), 10 October-16 October 2018KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite data during 8-10 October; weather clouds prevented views on the other days during 5-12 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Turrialba (Costa Rica), OVSICORI-UNA, Costa Rica
Volcanic activity report for Turrialba (Costa Rica), 10 October-16 October 2018OVSICORI-UNA reported that most days during 10-16 October intermittent, passive gas-and-ash emissions at Turrialba rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim. The emissions drifted W, SW, S, and NE. There were also some explosive events; an energetic explosion was recorded at 1712 on 14 October, though cloudy weather prevented estimates of a plume height.
Veniaminof (United States), Alaska Volcano Observatory
Volcanic activity report for Veniaminof (United States), 10 October-16 October 2018AVO reported that the eruption at Veniaminof continued during 10-16 October, as evidenced by elevated surface temperatures in satellite data, and low-level continuous tremor. Satellite data indicated that the E part of the S-flank flow field remained active. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Die Daten stellt die Smithsonian Institution im wöchentlich aktualisierten USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report zur Verfügung.
In Deutschland gibt es momentan keine aktiven Vulkane. Der Vulkanismus in Deutschland in den verangengen Jahrentausenden bzw. Jahrmillionen wurde durch Hebung der Alpen verursacht. Dass dieser Prozess noch nicht abgeschlossen ist, zeigen kleinere Erdbeben vom Rheingraben bis zur Kölner Bucht. Die Vulkane, die es in Deutschland gibt spucken zwar zur Zeit keine Lava aus, aber es gibt in Deutschland an vielen Orten heiße Quellen. Diese Thermalquellen sind ein Zeichen dafür, dass Wasser im inneren der Erde erwärmt wird. Vulkanaktivitäten aus vergangenen Zeiten sieht man in Deutschland z.B. auch am Kaiserstuhl in der oberrheinischen Ebene und am Rand der Schwäbischen Alp.